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President Trump met with Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan in the Oval Office on Friday.

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Doug Mills/The New York Times

WASHINGTON — President Trump on Friday said he would appeal a federal court ruling that blocked his order temporarily closing the borders to visitors from seven predominantly Muslim countries and refugees from anywhere in the world, even as he vowed to take new action to protect the country from terrorism.

Speaking at a news conference at the White House, Mr. Trump said he would appeal Thursday’s ruling and predicted, “Ultimately, I have no doubt that we’ll win that particular case.”

Mr. Trump did not specify what new security measures he had in mind, but said he was committed to “extreme vetting” of refugees and other visitors. He said his new actions would stop people “who are looking to do harm to our country” from entering the United States.

“We’ll be doing something very rapidly having to do with additional security for our country,” Mr. Trump said, standing beside the visiting Prime Minister Shinzo Abe of Japan. “You’ll see something next week.”

But he avoided the incendiary language he had been using in recent days as his policy was held up in the courts.

He initially called a federal district judge in Seattle who first blocked his executive order a “so-called judge” and said Americans should blame the judge if there were a terrorist attack. When the appeals court took up the case, he said a “bad high school student” would uphold the order. After the appeals court ruled against him, he called it “disgraceful.”

The unanimous ruling by a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit rejected the administration’s assertion that the president’s order was beyond judicial review. The judges noted that the administration had not provided any evidence that the country would be in danger if the order were temporarily blocked.

The administration can appeal the decision to the full Ninth Circuit or go directly to the Supreme Court, which has had a vacant seat for a year and is ideologically split on many issues. A 4-to-4 tie by the justices would leave the Ninth Circuit ruling in place and the ban suspended pending a fuller judicial consideration of its constitutional and legal merits.

The president’s appearance with Mr. Abe was part of an extended courtship between the two leaders. After the news conference, the two were to have lunch and then fly to Florida for a weekend golf outing. Mr. Abe was the first world leader to meet with Mr. Trump after the election and has made a point of trying to forge a close relationship with the new president, who has taken positions on trade and security that worry Tokyo.

During the campaign, Mr. Trump questioned why the United States was spending so much money defending Japan and suggested Tokyo should develop nuclear weapons for its own security. In his first days in office, Mr. Trump formally abandoned the never-ratified Trans-Pacific Partnership, a 12-nation trade agreement that included Japan and that Mr. Abe had taken considerable political risks to join.

Mr. Trump has said he wants to negotiate trade deals individually with other countries, but there are significant tensions between Washington and Tokyo over Japanese limits on American automobile imports. At the news conference, Mr. Abe stressed the extensive investment by Japanese companies in the United States, creating many jobs for American workers.

“The bond between our two nations and the friendship between our two peoples runs very very deep,” Mr. Trump said in his opening statement, reading from a script. “This administration is committed to bringing those ties even closer. We’re committed to the security of Japan and all areas under its administrative control and to further strengthening our very crucial alliance.”

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